Miracle … is our Life!!!

In everyone’s life some incidents occur that cannot be judged on any logical or scientific grounds. They are simply MIRACLES. Accidental encounters that blossom into romance, incredible physical healings, personal transformations that revolutionize life, answered prayers, angel encounters and pleasant coincidences… all are Gifts of God.Life is a miracle itself so there is no wonder if it is full of miracles. 

Every night we go to a strange valley of dreams and then wake up with a new day. The chase of darkness and light, despair and hope, singing birds, glittering galaxies, running rivers and strange creatures—all are the miracle of Almighty.But the greatest of all miracles is human life itself. Our experiences make us believe that there is a supreme power that designs our direction and decides our destiny. Anum had a serious crash at a young man in her teens. But she couldn’t tell anyone about it, not even remained in touch with him for long. Then after a decade, she incidentally met the same guy who disclosed that he also liked her and even proposed her. What would you call it?…Destiny or miracle!

Life is strange. Many-a-times God listens to our silent prayers and fulfill them in a way we hardly expect. Aisha and Asma – two sisters were abandoned in their childhood. They were separated and adopted by different families living in the same city. After completing their education, both applied for a teachers’ training programme in a city college. Soon they became friends. One day Aisha told Asma how her family left her alone in her childhood. It was then they realized that they share the same background and belonged to the same family. This way the two sisters were reunited after twenty years.

Some bonds are so strong that even death cannot defeat them.Sahida’s only son died in a car accident at 22. She couldn’t accept the tragedy and claimed that she had often seen and talked to her son. Nobody believed in her. It was rather taken as a shock reaction. However, when the mother died several years later, the family members saw the boy in their dreams who informed them that he and his mother were happily living together in a peaceful place.

We believe that God has control over life and death and only He can save us from clutches of decease. He miraculously gives life to the sick when doctors lose all hope. It happened when Naureen gave birth to her premature twins. She ended up in the ICU with little chance of survival through the night. Her husband prayed for a miracle. In his dream, he saw an old man who handed over a pendant to him with clear instructions. When he woke up, he placed the medallion on his unconscious wife’s forehead, and when he removed it she miraculously awakened.It might be difficult for us to believe that a pendant can save a woman.But God can use anything and anyone to show His power. He usually gives miracles to his prophets and saints. But sometimes, He selects ordinary people to perform a miracle.

Ahmed Ali is working in the Fire Department. Three years back he had a dream that he saved three people in a fire. The very next day, he was called to a fire. He found a badly burnt woman and two young boys at the spot.  All three were apparently dead when he brought them out of the house. He began to administer CPR to a boy, but couldn’t get a response. Another Fire worker arrived on the scene and told him, “Leave them, they are gone.”Ahmed remembered that all three people were saved in his dream. He knew that he should not give up. He kept on trying and was finally able to revitalize the woman as well as the two young boys.

We do not have power to help anyone. It is God who blesses us with courage, wealth and wisdom when He wants us to serve a purpose.Mr. and Mrs. Javed never missed a chance to help people in need. On their way back form Hyderabad to Karachi; they heard a radio announcement about a missing child and the car number of the suspected kidnapper. Mrs Javed unconsciously memorised the number. To their surprise, they spotted the van with the same number plate parked along the highway. They called the police who recovered the child and arrested the kidnapper from the nearby locality.  

Some of us live like dead, without any objective and aspiration.While there are people who remain alive even after death because they strongly believe in life and charity. One such person was James, a teenage boy who donated his heart to Mary John. Mary was diagnosed with a fatal heart disease and was thankful to the young boy for giving her a new life.As part of her treatment, she started swimming. Although she could barely swim before the transplant, she avidly enjoyed her new hobby and even won a gold medal at the transplant games. Mary met the James’ family to thank them and discovered that their son had been a passionate swimmer and had won many swimming competitions.

Most of us are ignorant of ourselves. We are too busy to reach our destination that we often overlook directions. Our life is full of miracles. When we are confused and seek help, God guides us through dreams and people around. Istikhara is the one way to find out God’s will on any matter but it needs unshaken belief.It often happens that you wake up one pleasant morning and have a feeling that something is wrong. Your car might get punctured on the way to office; the presentation for which you planned for a week might be postponed or you may have a fight with your partner. One way or the other nature warns us.Call it sixth sense, intuition or ilham, that doesn’t lessen its value.

While asked to share a miracle in their life, majority of people said they never experience any. They might forget their healthy birth, transformation from a tiny toddler to a strong person and their first love.They might not remember the channels God opened to them when they had lost all hope. How they learned to live and earn amidst extreme poverty and ignorance in the world. How God united them with their soul mates and how He bestowed them with His blessings whenever they earnestly ask for it.

The Creator shows His miracle at every step and invites us to open our inner eyes and enjoy it… So would you like to share the miracle in your life ?


Modern Media give birth to Bizarre Lingo published in Dawn Review

Courtesy "images for the new language"

It was my first day as a high school language teacher. I was excited as well as apprehensive about facing two-dozen curious students since I had no idea how I would be welcomed. As I entered the class room, I heard “Namastay teacher”, another student greeted “hi shrimati” while the rest of the naughty lot simply cheered “mornin’ ma’am.” Initially, I took it as a joke – the first day prank. But with every passing day, I realized that our young generation is fully obsessed with American lifestyle and Indian language beyond our imagination. These teenagers are part of a cult, defined by what they are exposed to on media especially on TV, Internet and in films.

Language reflects the mindset of an individual and of a nation. It mirrors the way people think, identify and express themselves. As a language teacher and communication professional, I have witnessed growth of a superficial culture in Pakistan completely alien to our cultural traditions and values.
I know a number of people personally who are ashamed of being Pakistani. They are rather proud associating themselves to Lucknow, CP, New York and London. The foreign media especially Indian channels exploit the situation to their advantage and advertise their brands and propagate their culture and skillfully enslaving our generations ideologically and economically. The modern digital and electronic media influence every aspect of our lives and transform us into a consumer society with never-ending craving for foreign fast food, designer outfits, westernized decor, Indian rituals and celebrations. Language is merely a reflection of the damage that rotten our roots.

Today’s Pakistan language is a bizarre mixture of slang and colloquialism, usually influenced by the net chat, Bollywood flicks, Star plus soaps and Hollywood blockbusters. Our youth sounds more like their movie stars than their parents’ children. When they are happy or intend to appreciate something, they scream, “wow, yeah, cool, set hai, ‘fit hai, bomb hai!!!”. Anger is often expressed bluntly in public with expletives such as shit, fuck, bull shit, damn, bitch and other such typical bizarre expressions that are inappropriate to add here. Customs and values are declining dangerously in the modern world. These days, Hollywood hip hop and Hindi films tapori (street slang) language has become increasingly popular among the teenagers from all sections of Pakistani society. Bhau (big brother), khalas (finish), bolnay ka nahi (don’t talk), siyanpati (wisdom), topi na pehnao, panga, aranga, bhinnot  and many such unsavoury expressions have been adopted by our youngsters, thanks to madar padar azad media.

They find Aashir-wad, Namaste, Hi and hello more attractive than the good old Assalam-o-Alaikum. When I asked one of my students to complete his assignment on time, he said, “Miss, aap mujhay chitavani dai rahi hain?” (Are you giving me warning?) The entire class understood what he said – thanks to the cable invasion – but ironically nobody knew the Urdu replacement “tambhi” for it.

The influence of foreign media is not confined to language; it affects the psyche and ideals of the youth as well. I hardly saw a student reciting naat or aya’at in class. But I was shocked when one day I found a student singing bhajan “Om Jai Jagjit Harai” at the top of his lungs as I entered the class. I inquired if he understood the meaning of the words which he obviously didn’t. He disclosed that he liked it since his favourite star performed it in a recent movie.

No wonder of our young generation wants to date, attend dance parties, and celebrate Valentines, rang, holi and diwali. They know more about foreign rituals like rakhi and Halloween than their own festivals thanks to a wide variety of foreign cable channels and free net access.

I think it also reflects failure of Pakistani media to counter foreign propaganda and establish its cultural identity. Family, community and educational institutions have also become less effective in holding on to a legacy of customs and traditions. They too would rather hand over this responsibility to media.

You might agree or disagree. Share how you perceive the entire situation.

 Comment, Criticize and Raise your voice on blog <erumsuchistan.wordpress.com>(the article received 20 comments on GupShup; some of which are uploaded to encourage discussion)

Battameez Urdu Medium published in Dawn Magazine

Students punished in a traditional way

Driving down Fatima Jinnah Road, one can see a large crowd of youth in front of the Pakistan American Cultural Centre (PACC) and the British Council especially in the morning and evening hours. The crowd includes an interesting variety of traditionally and modernly-dressed youth, sitting or standing idly in groups, under trees, on the footpaths, in their cars or on motorbikes.

Most of them are from the middle and lower middle class families which persistently strive to rise above their social status throughout their lives. These youngsters are actually the product of our dual education system which, on one side, has Convent and Grammar Schools, offering foreign maal at foreign rates and, on the other extreme, the poorly managed peelay schools which have been producing generations of inferiority-complexed youth.

In spite of having university degrees, and the label of being literate, these Bachelor’s and Master’s degree-holders are unable to communicate confidently in a language which they usually study as a compulsory subject for more than a decade. The five per cent privileged class which claims to dream in English can’t even imagine how this language trauma damages an individual’s personality and keeps one behind on every front. English is just another important language, but for those who can’t speak and write it well, it is rather a monster that overshadows all their talents and hinders their progress in all the spheres of life.

It is said that the limits of one’s language are the limits of one’s world. So, how could a battameez Urdu medium survive in a society like ours, where most of the career opportunities demand the candidates to be fluent both in written and verbal expression in English; where interviews, not only for jobs but also for admissions to prestigious educational institutions, are conducted in English; where all official documents from registries to amenities’ bills are printed in gora sahibs’ language; and where all the important exams from professional colleges’ entry tests to the civil services exams are taken in the same medium.

The demands of our society don’t end here. Whether you want to visit any fancy restaurant, attend a business conference or an academic seminar, you need to communicate in English. Switch to Urdu or your mother tongue, and you will be looked down upon as a social outcast.

A master’s degree-holder in English from the larget University at Karachi shares, “I feel that even an ‘O’ level student is better than me, both in expression and in knowledge because his foundation is strong, concepts are clear, environment is conducive and s/he is usually encouraged to understand rather than rattofied (cram) books for success in exams, so cambridge system students usually don’t need to make an extra effort to develop their communication skills like matric students.”

Another masters student from the Department of International Relations is of the opinion, “Right from the prestigious educational institutions to the high-level competitive exams for civil services, command in English is the basic criteria and a vast majority of the youth are disqualified there solely due to poor expression. It seems that the barrier of language is intentionally created and exploited by the elite class to keep common man away from the top decision-making positions—the trick they have learnt from their colonial masters while their own generations are sent to foreign universities to get all sorts of training since they are to take the reins of the country generation after generation.”

The consequences of the dual language system are evident all around us. While majority of English-striken youth give up and suffer silently with embarrassment throughout their lives. Others opt to join various centers that offer English language programmes and courses for different levels and make high sounding claims with exorbitant fees. However, very few of them practically help these “English-phobia patients” to regain their confidence and get command over the language while most of them are simply money-making hubs with little to offer.

One such English medium victim shares , “I have always been afraid of business gatherings, meetings, interviews and presentations—any socialization which involves communication in English. It’s not that I can’t speak or write the language at all. It’s the fear of making a mistake that makes me dumb at such occasions.This fear is deeply rooted in me since my college days when a teacher insulted me in front of the whole class for speaking wrong English. It was one of the city’s most recognized English Medium colleges where Urdu was completely forbidden in the class. So, a few Urdu Medium students who dared to get admission there, never participated in the class discussion. Beyond doubt, they had valid points in their minds and even knew right answers, but they kept their mouths shut, only due to fear of embarrassment and lack of confidence.”

It’s ironic that four languages—English, Urdu, Arabic and a regional language are taught in the Matric system at the secondary level, but not a single one can make its way to the students’ mind. Everyone knows early childhood is an ideal age to learn a language but when a mind is overburdened with as many as four languages, it is difficult to grasp even one.

The Director of Planning Development and Research in PACC told us that a number of doctors, engineers, MBAs, MAs and even PHDs get themselves registered in their language programmes, but quite often they like to hide their identity. The PACC teachers simply help them by focussing on spoken English since it is the yardstick by which the ability of the candidates is judged in most offices.

According to a spokesperson of the British Council Teaching Centre, “People want to study English language for different reasons. Some to meet the professional and academic requirements like students who seek higher education abroad, businessmen to compete in the international market, scientists and technicians to keep up with the latest developments, and professionals to feel confident in participating in international seminars, to travel abroad, and others to simply improve their lifestyles. Almost all of them have the potential understanding of the language, we simply provide them a controlled environment under experienced teaching staff to overcome their flaws and fears and meet their requirements.”

Whenever the dilemma of medium of education arises, cynics start giving examples of the great personalities in history who studied in ordinary government schools and colleges and yet made their mark in various fields. But, what they forget is that a majority of the people is born with an average intelligence level and can do wonders with proper guidance and schooling. They can utilize their energies in more constructive activities than simply learning a language half of their lives and the rest regretting their failure. Therefore, it is important to have one medium of education, (either English or Urdu), one curriculum and one system all over the country. It might sound quite idealistic but not impossible.

What do you think???

THE LITTLE ACTS OF KINDNESS; published in Daily Dawn Magazine

We generally think that life is all about grand deeds and great achievements. However, it is our little, nameless acts of kindness, which we hardly remember, that actually beautify our as well as others lives.

It was a hot summer day. I was standing in an overcrowded, speedy coach on my way to home. Suddenly the bus driver applied full breaks to avoid an accident and I lost my balance. Before I collapsed, the girl sitting in front of me politely clutched my hand. She put my bag in her lap and kept on holding me with her other hand for the rest of the journey. We had no relation, yet her timely act of kindness filled my heart with thankfulness and hers’ with pleasure, as was evident from her glowing face. We could hardly exchange a few words as the bus soon reached my destination. An impulsive act of kindness by a complete stranger made her a memorable character for me.

In the modern, fast moving world, kindness without interest is considered strange. Most of the time, we run after our set goals –- money, status, fame, name and people who can be beneficial to us. At least once in your life, try to help someone without any selfish intention, without any desire for reward and recognition; you will feel a unique sense of joy and pride. And once you have that feeling, you will develop an ever-growing urge for being kind and helpful to others.

I still remember that old, smiling uncle of our childhood who distributed sweets and love among all the children of vicinity.  His unconditional generosity made him every child’s favourite and we cherished him as an angel.

Love and kindness establish a bond that is stronger than any other relation.The people who help us in need and in trouble have become dearer than the rest. A friend of mine desperately contacted an ex-university fellow for some professional guidance after her divorce. The kind fellow listened to her patiently, gave her best possible advice and comforted her by mentioning many other similar cases. They frequently talked to each other after that and soon become best friends.

For some of us, friendly smiles, cheerful gestures, boosting comments, helping hands, little favours and others feelings might not be that worthy; but indeed such little acts of kindness have great value.Apparently insignificant moves might make a great difference to others. Imagine by removing a stone or broken glass from a road or pathway, you can save someone from an accident. By giving place to a senior citizen in a public bus or in a bank line, you can get immense joy.

Quite often we help ourselves by helping others. One day while returning from office, some of my colleagues asked me for lift. I was in hurry so I started thinking about an excuse but couldn’t say no. I had to change my route for them and it saved me from a serious accident on my regular route on the very day. Since then, I try to be less selfish and look for opportunities to do small favours to others. Who knows God helps us in which way?

It’s said that love cures people; both the ones who give it and the ones who receive it. So try love humanity, the best medicine for all our sufferings and sorrows. When you feel lonely, don’t attend parties, rather look for other lonely people around you and make a company. When you are hurt, don’t take revenge; rather identify people who are more tormented than you. By sharing their pains, you can get true relief.

It might sound quite idealistic but frankly it’s more practical than anything else since it is based on personal experience. After going through a setback in my life, I suffered with serious depression and anxiety. I lost faith in everything including life and was even considering suicide very often.

I found a silver lining in the dark clouds of despair when one day I accidently came across a charity organization for orphan and abandoned children. Initially, I visited the place just to accompany my friend but soon started enjoying the time I spent with the little kids. After meeting them, I realised what real suffering was. They taught me the art of courageous living against all odds.  In reality they are my rescuers who help me forget my pain.

Quite often our sufferings make us sensitive to others’ pain. But how many of us ever bother to take trouble for them. Many people might have lost their loved ones due to cancer but how many of them would ever try to help cancer patients within their capacity. We don’t actually need to build a hospital like Imran Khan to do so; our weekly visit to such patients and little emotional support can make a world of difference.

It is said that the best charity is one that involves one’s self. A broken heart, an abandoned child, a lonely old fellow and a depressed soul don’t need our money. They need love, attention and company. By teaching someone who can’t afford formal education, by listening to those who have no one to talk, by sharing a few moments of joy and sorrows with the sick and old, we can help others in a true sense.

Abdul Sattar Edhi once said that they never face short of funds. But there are very few people in our country, especially from affluent and educated background who are willing to devote their time and energy for a social cause.

Charity and kindness are the spirit of human soul. It begins from home and extends to the entire mankind. It gives meaning to our existence and makes us believe in human values. So if you want to live happily, be kind and generous to others. Make a difference in someone’s life and feel difference in your own world.


Quality education is the key concern of most parents who seek a bright future for their children. But is it easy to find the right kind of school and enlighten your child with quality learning facilities in the current commercialized educational scenario…the answer is simple straight NO.

Dr Anisa has two little children. Both are studying in junior classes in a reputable private school. She pays twenty thousands in terms of their school fees every alternative month.

The expenses of course books, uniform and other accessories in the beginning of the term are additional which range from five to seven thousand per child. She and her husband both are working to give their children the best possible education, but they are of opinion that private schools are not giving due facilities such as proper play grounds, libraries, computer labs etc., in return to high fees.

The admission fee in private school is exorbitant. Mrs.Rakshina, a housewife, enunciates. “I have three children and I had to pay sixty to ninety thousands for the admission of every child. My husband is working at an executive post in a bank and every month half of his salary goes in the school fees.  I wonder how a middle class family can afford to educate its children in a reputable school. She pondered.”

What is concerning is despite providing high class schooling, tuition, transportation and other facilities, parents are generally dissatisfied with the overall educational standard.  Students, too, are uncertain about their aptitudes and potentials. On the other hand, educational authorities are also failed to ensure that they are giving the best breed which can meet the challenges of the modern time.

Most of the parents share that they opt for expensive locality schools due to commuting problems. Considering the uncertain law and order situation in the country and strict admission criteria, many children can’t get admission in convent and missionary schools which are still considered the best. So the only option left is of costly private schools which usually support a network of branches in thickly populated areas.

In any case, these little bungalow schools are considered much better than the Urdu medium nationalized schools working under the government sector. Their core area of superiority is English and so-called `English Medium Environment.’ In country like Pakistan where most white collar jobs demand fluency in English and where majority people can’t speak and write the language correctly, parents willingly pay a high price just for proficiency in the language for better career prospects for their children.

English no more remains only a medium of communication. It has rather become a symbol of education and status in our society. Most parents judge the academic progress of their child by the number of English words he/she speaks in his conversation. I still remember request of a Master’s degree holder father to the English teacher of his son. He pleaded “Please do anything to make my son fluent in English. I don’t want him to suffer the way I suffered due to language barrier.” In fact, the same weakness is exploited in most of the private schools.

However, despite high sounding claims, very few schools are actually providing the environment where a child can learn the language for practical purposes. What is mainly lacking is trained teaching staff, standardized curriculum, extinct reading habits and a favourable environment in schools and at home to practice the language without any hesitation.

Teachers are the backbone of any educational institutions and are considered the barometer of its standard. However, in many private schools there is no criteria for their appointment and placement except financial considerations. The system usually works on the law of supply and demand. Whenever any place is vacant, it is filled with the first available teacher, quite often irrespective of one’s knowledge and aptitude to the relevant subject.  So in private schools one can find that Masters in Science are teaching Geography and History. Graduates in Political Science and Sociology are taking English literature. Even Intermediate students, who are waiting for their results, are hired in private schools on temporary basis since they are willing to work at low/nominal salaries.

Teaching in a private school is regarded as a profession for those who don’t have any other career options. The boys who are looking for respectable white collar jobs, the girls who are waiting for suitable proposals, the spinsters, divorcees and widows who want to earn their living independently and the married women who want to pursue part time careers alongside their household responsibilities, usually opt for teaching in private schools.

However, once they enter into the field, they are tested with all kinds of administrative pressures and tactics. Perhaps the idea is to shatter their enthusiasm for teaching profession. In majority private schools, quantity is considered more important than quality. Usually, workload on teachers is immense and they are assigned a number of subjects and classes at a time. Besides they are expected to assess piles of copies, do planning, perform extra duties and jobs given to them by administration.

In such an environment, there are very few teachers who work by choice. A large majority continues since they have no other alternative. There are many who work just for the sake of their own children since some private schools offer free education for teachers’ children. Nevertheless, an unmotivated, exhausted and inexperienced teacher without proper qualification and training are often unable to do justice with their students – ones who suffer the most.

On the contrary, the teachers of the private schools have a different opinion. They believe that parents and children are equally responsible for the declining standard of education in our society. Mostly parents consider that by admitting their child in an expensive school, they have fulfilled all their responsibilities. They neither have time nor will to check the academic progress of their children. If they have excess of money, they might hire a tutor as well. But in absence of parental attention, it hardly works.

The students in private schools are usually overburdened. They carry huge, heavy bags with numerous books and copies. An excessive knowledge, too many subjects and exam-oriented studies mostly suppress their natural potential and aptitudes.

They have become increasingly lazy and careless too. A large majority of private schools’ students represent the over-pampered lost class that considers teachers their paid employees who can be fired in response to a phone call or complaint by their parents. The sincerity and devotion, respect and love which were once the essence of the student-teacher relationship are missing nowadays.

The commercial aspect and money matters have overshadowed all other values in the educational world. Merit is no more a criterion of success. If you have money, you can get admission in any school, college and university; you can pass the exam and be promoted in next grade regardless of your performance. You can buy even a degree.

 Almost all private schools are working on commercial basis and for them students are the customers who have to be pleased at any cost. They increase fees every year on the pretext of inflation and to justify it, money is spent lavishly on countless useless activities and programmes rather than on real education of children.

Unfortunately, intellect and talent are not sold in any market. So the loopholes of the existing educational system become more obvious when the product of these schools enters into practical field and faces actual competition.

It’s high time for parents, teachers, educationalists and authorities to accept their responsibilities and decide on the type of education they want for their children.

Do they want to produce a money conscious and confused generation with plenty of knowledge, less intellect and reasoning? Or they wish to generate an intelligent race with a clear sense of direction, human values and sheer understanding of the modern world. Accordingly, there is a need for substantial steps to set and implement uniform standards and medium of education all over the country and replace the money making private and pathetic government schools with better educational institutions. The authorities and educated class must take initiatives before education will become a luxury for the common man and the dual educational set up of the country will ultimately collapse. 

  According to an important official in the department of higher secondary private schools the Ordinance of 1962 and Act of 1974, which are applied to private educational institutions, have to be revised and updated. The laws are too weak and vague. There is no legal limitation on the amount of fees.

Any school with more than fifty students has to be officially registered. However, thousands of private schools, including some of the reputable ones, are working in Karachi without any approval . The authorities said that legally they can seal such unofficial schools. But they have neither enough money nor contacts to fight against the private school owners – the big fishes.

In 1989, the directorate took an action against a well-known private school regarding its high fees. The administration was asked to set up a board of directors including the representation of parents and authorities. However, the school took the stay order and ultimately won the case.Today, that  school has one of the biggest set up, running more than 30 branches with around 25,000 students only in Karachi. Such schools that are not even officially registered have their turn over in millions (approx. more than 50 million per month).

The officials agree that the contribution and importance of private schools can’t be denied. They fill the gap created due to the nationalization of many schools in the seventies and the resultant decline in their standard under government sector. They do spend a little money on its students, follow the foreign books and pay good salaries to their teachers.However, due to absence of proper check and balance, many private schools exploit the situation. They are looting millions of rupees in the name of English medium and Cambridge system.

A veteran teacher expresses that a better alternative can be provided to the middle class by preserving and denationalizing some of the good schools of the past. There are schools such as Khatoon-e-Pakistan, Delhi School, Junior Model, Frare Road to name a few., which were once considered the model institutions. They have been completely ruined with the nationalization and free education fever. Now, they attract only children of labourers,  thalay wallas and lower working class. The good teachers of the past have either be retired or lost their interest due to the rotten set up.  And the better educated youth rather prefer private schools due to attractive salaries and environment.

So the gulf between private and government schools is increasing day by day, making attainment of standard education almost impossible for the salaried middle class. There is a grave need for complete educational institutions, which aims at imparting knowledge rather than making money.